//C- -*- C++ -*- //C- ------------------------------------------------------------------- //C- DjVuLibre-3.5 //C- Copyright (c) 2002 Leon Bottou and Yann Le Cun. //C- Copyright (c) 2001 AT&T //C- //C- This software is subject to, and may be distributed under, the //C- GNU General Public License, either Version 2 of the license, //C- or (at your option) any later version. The license should have //C- accompanied the software or you may obtain a copy of the license //C- from the Free Software Foundation at http://www.fsf.org . //C- //C- This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, //C- but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of //C- MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the //C- GNU General Public License for more details. //C- //C- DjVuLibre-3.5 is derived from the DjVu(r) Reference Library from //C- Lizardtech Software. Lizardtech Software has authorized us to //C- replace the original DjVu(r) Reference Library notice by the following //C- text (see doc/lizard2002.djvu and doc/lizardtech2007.djvu): //C- //C- ------------------------------------------------------------------ //C- | DjVu (r) Reference Library (v. 3.5) //C- | Copyright (c) 1999-2001 LizardTech, Inc. All Rights Reserved. //C- | The DjVu Reference Library is protected by U.S. Pat. No. //C- | 6,058,214 and patents pending. //C- | //C- | This software is subject to, and may be distributed under, the //C- | GNU General Public License, either Version 2 of the license, //C- | or (at your option) any later version. The license should have //C- | accompanied the software or you may obtain a copy of the license //C- | from the Free Software Foundation at http://www.fsf.org . //C- | //C- | The computer code originally released by LizardTech under this //C- | license and unmodified by other parties is deemed "the LIZARDTECH //C- | ORIGINAL CODE." Subject to any third party intellectual property //C- | claims, LizardTech grants recipient a worldwide, royalty-free, //C- | non-exclusive license to make, use, sell, or otherwise dispose of //C- | the LIZARDTECH ORIGINAL CODE or of programs derived from the //C- | LIZARDTECH ORIGINAL CODE in compliance with the terms of the GNU //C- | General Public License. This grant only confers the right to //C- | infringe patent claims underlying the LIZARDTECH ORIGINAL CODE to //C- | the extent such infringement is reasonably necessary to enable //C- | recipient to make, have made, practice, sell, or otherwise dispose //C- | of the LIZARDTECH ORIGINAL CODE (or portions thereof) and not to //C- | any greater extent that may be necessary to utilize further //C- | modifications or combinations. //C- | //C- | The LIZARDTECH ORIGINAL CODE is provided "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY //C- | OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED //C- | TO ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF //C- | MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. //C- +------------------------------------------------------------------ // // $Id: ZPCodec.h,v 1.10 2007/03/25 20:48:35 leonb Exp $ // $Name: release_3_5_23 $ #ifndef _ZPCODEC_H #define _ZPCODEC_H #ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H #include "config.h" #endif #if NEED_GNUG_PRAGMAS # pragma interface #endif // From: Leon Bottou, 1/31/2002 // Almost equal to my initial code. #include "GContainer.h" #ifdef HAVE_NAMESPACES namespace DJVU { # ifdef NOT_DEFINED // Just to fool emacs c++ mode } #endif #endif class ByteStream; /** @name ZPCodec.h Files #"ZPCodec.h"# and #"ZPCodec.cpp"# implement a fast binary adaptive quasi-arithmetic coder named ZP-Coder. Because of its speed and convenience, the ZP-Coder is used in several parts of the DjVu reference library (See \Ref{BSByteStream.h}, \Ref{JB2Image.h}, \Ref{IW44Image.h}). The following comments avoid the theory (see the historical remarks for useful pointers) and concentrate on the user perspective on the ZP-Coder. {\bf Introduction} --- Encoding consists of transforming a sequence of {\em message bits} into a sequence of {\em code bits}. Decoding consists of retrieving the message bits using only the code bits. We can make the code smaller than the message as soon as we can predict a message bit on the basis of a {\em coding context} composed of previously encoded or decoded bits. If the prediction is always correct, we do not even need to encode the message bit. If the prediction is totally unreliable, we need to generate one code bit in order to unambiguously specify the message bit. In other words, the more reliable the prediction, the more compression we get. The ZP-Coder handles prediction by means of {\em context variables} (see \Ref{BitContext}). There must be a context variable for each possible combination of context bits. Both the encoder and the decoder use same context variable for coding each message bit. For instance, we can code a binary image by successively coding all the pixels (the message bits) in row and column order. It is reasonable to assume that each pixel can be reasonably well predicted by looking at a few (say 10) neighboring pixels located above and to the left of the current pixel. Since these 10 pixels make 1024 combinations, we need 1024 context variables. Each pixel is encoded using the context variable corresponding to the values of the 10 neighboring pixels. Each pixel will be decoded by specifying the same context variable corresponding to the values of these 10 pixels. This is possible because these 10 pixels (located above and to the left) have already been decoded and therefore are known by the decoder program. The context variables are initially set to zero, which mean that we do not know yet how to predict the current message bit on the basis of the context bits. While coding the message bits, the ZP-Coder automatically estimates the frequencies of #0#s and #1#s coded using each context variable. These frequencies actually provide a prediction (the most probable bit value) and an estimation of the prediction reliability (how often the prediction was correct in the past). All this statistical information is stored into the context variable after coding each bit. In other words, the more we code bits within a particular context, the better the ZP-Coder adapts its prediction model, and the more compression we can obtain. All this adaptation works indeed because both the encoder program and the decoder program are always synchronized. Both the encoder and the decoder see the same message bits encoded (or decoded) with the same context variables. Both the encoder and the decoder apply the same rules to update the context variables and improve the predictors. Both the encoder and the decoder programs use the same predictors for any given message bit. The decoder could not work if this was not the case. Just before encoding a message bit, all the context variables in the encoder program contain certain values. Just before decoding this message bit, all the context variables in the decoder program must contain the same values as for the encoder program. This is guaranteed as long as each prediction only depends on already coded bits: {\em the coding context, on which the each prediction is based, must be composed of message bits which have already been coded. } {\bf Usage} --- Once you know how to organize the predictions (i.e. which coding context to use, how many context variables to initialize, etc.), using the ZP-Coder is straightforward (see \Ref{ZPCodec Examples}): \begin{itemize} \item The {\em encoder program} allocates context variables and initializes them to zero. It then constructs a \Ref{ZPCodec} object for encoding. For each message bit, the encoder program retrieves the context bits, selects a context variable on the basis of the context bits and calls member function \Ref{ZPCodec::encoder} with the message bit and a reference to the context variable. \item The {\em decoder program} allocates context variables and initializes them to zero. It then constructs a \Ref{ZPCodec} object for decoding. For each message bit, the decoder program retrieves the context bits, selects a context variable on the basis of the context bits and calls member function \Ref{ZPCodec::decoder} with a reference to the context variable. This function returns the message bit. \end{itemize} Functions #encoder# and #decoder# only require a few machine cycles to perform two essential tasks, namely {\em coding} and {\em context adaptation}. Function #decoder# often returns after two arithmetic operations only. To make your program fast, you just need to feed message bits and context variables fast enough. {\bf History} --- The ZP-Coder is similar in function and performance to the seminal Q-Coder (Pennebaker, Mitchell, Langdon, Arps, IBM J. Res Dev. 32, 1988). An improved version of the Q-Coder, named QM-Coder, has been described in certain parts of the JPEG standard. Unfortunate patent policies have made these coders very difficult to use in general purpose applications. The Z-Coder is constructed using a new approach based on an extension of the Golomb codes (Bottou, Howard, Bengio, IEEE DCC 98, 1998 \URL[DjVu]{http://www.research.att.com/~leonb/DJVU/bottou-howard-bengio/} \URL[PostScript]{http://www.research.att.com/~leonb/PS/bottou-howard-bengio.ps.gz}) This new approach does not infringe the QM-Coder patents. Unfortunately the Z-Coder is dangerously close to the patented Arithmetic MEL Coder. Therefore we wrote the ZP-Coder (pronounce Zee-Prime Coder) which we believe is clear of legal problems. Needless to say, AT&T has patents pending for both the Z-Coder and the ZP-Coder, licenced to LizardTech. The good news however is that we can grant a license to use the ZP-Coder in ``free software'' without further complication. See the Copyright for more information. @memo Binary adaptive quasi-arithmetic coder. @version #$Id: ZPCodec.h,v 1.10 2007/03/25 20:48:35 leonb Exp $# @author L\'eon Bottou <leonb@research.att.com> */ //@{ /** Context variable. Variables of type #BitContext# hold a single byte describing how to encode or decode message bits with similar statistical properties. This single byte simultaneously represents the current estimate of the bit probability distribution (which is determined by the frequencies of #1#s and #0#s already coded with this context) and the confidence in this estimate (which determines how fast the estimate can change.) A coding program typically allocates hundreds of context variables. Each coding context is initialized to zero before encoding or decoding. Value zero represents equal probabilities for #1#s and #0#s with a minimal confidence and therefore a maximum adaptation speed. Each message bit is encoded using a coding context determined as a function of previously encoded message bits. The decoder therefore can examine the previously decoded message bits and decode the current bit using the same context as the encoder. This is critical for proper decoding. */ typedef unsigned char BitContext; /** Performs ZP-Coder encoding and decoding. A ZPCodec object must either constructed for encoding or for decoding. The ZPCodec object is connected with a \Ref{ByteStream} object specified at construction time. A ZPCodec object constructed for decoding reads code bits from the ByteStream and returns a message bit whenever function \Ref{decoder} is called. A ZPCodec constructed for encoding processes the message bits provided by function \Ref{encoder} and writes the corresponding code bits to ByteStream #bs#. You should never directly access a ByteStream object connected to a valid ZPCodec object. The most direct way to access the ByteStream object consists of using the "pass-thru" versions of functions \Ref{encoder} and \Ref{decoder}. The ByteStream object can be accessed again after the destruction of the ZPCodec object. Note that the encoder always flushes its internal buffers and writes a few final code bytes when the ZPCodec object is destroyed. Note also that the decoder often reads a few bytes beyond the last code byte written by the encoder. This lag means that you must reposition the ByteStream after the destruction of the ZPCodec object and before re-using the ByteStream object (see \Ref{IFFByteStream}.) Please note also that the decoder has no way to reliably indicate the end of the message bit sequence. The content of the message must be designed in a way which indicates when to stop decoding. Simple ways to achieve this consists of announcing the message length at the beginning (like a pascal style string), or of defining a termination code (like a null terminated string). */ 00247 class ZPCodec : public GPEnabled { protected: ZPCodec (GP<ByteStream> gbs, const bool encoding, const bool djvucompat=false); public: class Encode; class Decode; /// Non-virtual destructor. ~ZPCodec(); /** Constructs a ZP-Coder. If argument #encoding# is zero, the ZP-Coder object will read code bits from the ByteStream #bs# and return a message bit whenever function #decoder# is called. If flag #encoding# is set the ZP-Coder object will process the message bits provided by function #encoder# and write code bits to ByteStream #bs#. Optional flag #djvucompat# selects a slightly less efficient adaptation table which is used by the DjVu project. This is required in order to ensure the bitstream compatibility. You should not use this flag unless you want to decode JB2, IW44 or BZZ encoded data. */ static GP<ZPCodec> create( GP<ByteStream> gbs, const bool encoding, const bool djvucompat=false); /** Encodes bit #bit# using context variable #ctx#. Argument #bit# must be #0# or #1#. This function should only be used with ZP-Coder objects created for encoding. It may modify the contents of variable #ctx# in order to perform context adaptation. */ void encoder(int bit, BitContext &ctx); /** Decodes a bit using context variable #ctx#. This function should only be used with ZP-Coder objects created for decoding. It may modify the contents of variable #ctx# in order to perform context adaptation. */ int decoder(BitContext &ctx); /** Encodes bit #bit# without compression (pass-thru encoder). Argument #bit# must be #0# or #1#. No compression will be applied. Calling this function always increases the length of the code bit sequence by one bit. */ void encoder(int bit); /** Decodes a bit without compression (pass-thru decoder). This function retrieves bits encoded with the pass-thru encoder. */ int decoder(void); #ifdef ZPCODEC_BITCOUNT /** Counter for code bits (requires #-DZPCODEC_BITCOUNT#). This member variable is available when the ZP-Coder is compiled with option #-DZPCODEC_BITCOUNT#. Variable #bitcount# counts the number of code bits processed by the coder since the construction of the object. This variable can be used to evaluate how many code bits are spent on various components of the message. */ int bitcount; #endif // Table management (advanced stuff) struct Table { unsigned short p; unsigned short m; BitContext up; BitContext dn; }; void newtable(ZPCodec::Table *table); BitContext state(float prob1); // Non-adaptive encoder/decoder void encoder_nolearn(int pix, BitContext &ctx); int decoder_nolearn(BitContext &ctx); inline int IWdecoder(void); inline void IWencoder(const bool bit); protected: // coder status GP<ByteStream> gbs; // Where the data goes/comes from ByteStream *bs; // Where the data goes/comes from const bool encoding; // Direction (0=decoding, 1=encoding) unsigned char byte; unsigned char scount; unsigned char delay; unsigned int a; unsigned int code; unsigned int fence; unsigned int subend; unsigned int buffer; unsigned int nrun; // table unsigned int p[256]; unsigned int m[256]; BitContext up[256]; BitContext dn[256]; // machine independent ffz char ffzt[256]; // encoder private void einit (void); void eflush (void); void outbit(int bit); void zemit(int b); void encode_mps(BitContext &ctx, unsigned int z); void encode_lps(BitContext &ctx, unsigned int z); void encode_mps_simple(unsigned int z); void encode_lps_simple(unsigned int z); void encode_mps_nolearn(unsigned int z); void encode_lps_nolearn(unsigned int z); // decoder private void dinit(void); void preload(void); int ffz(unsigned int x); int decode_sub(BitContext &ctx, unsigned int z); int decode_sub_simple(int mps, unsigned int z); int decode_sub_nolearn(int mps, unsigned int z); private: // no copy allowed (hate c++) ZPCodec(const ZPCodec&); ZPCodec& operator=(const ZPCodec&); #ifdef ZPCODEC_FRIEND friend ZPCODEC_FRIEND; #endif }; // INLINE CODE inline void 00367 ZPCodec::encoder(int bit, BitContext &ctx) { unsigned int z = a + p[ctx]; if (bit != (ctx & 1)) { encode_lps(ctx, z); }else if (z >= 0x8000) { encode_mps(ctx, z); }else { a = z; } } inline int ZPCodec::IWdecoder(void) { return decode_sub_simple(0,0x8000 + ((a+a+a) >> 3)); } inline int 00389 ZPCodec::decoder(BitContext &ctx) { unsigned int z = a + p[ctx]; if (z <= fence) { a = z; return (ctx&1); } return decode_sub(ctx, z); } inline void ZPCodec::encoder_nolearn(int bit, BitContext &ctx) { unsigned int z = a + p[ctx]; if (bit != (ctx & 1)) encode_lps_nolearn(z); else if (z >= 0x8000) encode_mps_nolearn(z); else a = z; } inline int ZPCodec::decoder_nolearn(BitContext &ctx) { unsigned int z = a + p[ctx]; if (z <= fence) { a = z; return (ctx&1); } return decode_sub_nolearn( (ctx&1), z); } inline void 00419 ZPCodec::encoder(int bit) { if (bit) encode_lps_simple(0x8000 + (a>>1)); else encode_mps_simple(0x8000 + (a>>1)); } inline int 00428 ZPCodec::decoder(void) { return decode_sub_simple(0, 0x8000 + (a>>1)); } inline void ZPCodec::IWencoder(const bool bit) { const int z = 0x8000 + ((a+a+a) >> 3); if (bit) { encode_lps_simple(z); }else { encode_mps_simple(z); } } // ------------ ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTATION /** @name ZPCodec Examples Binary adaptive coders are efficient and very flexible. Unfortunate intellectual property issues however have limited their popularity. As a consequence, few programmers have a direct experience of using such a coding device. The few examples provided in this section demonstrate how we think the ZP-Coder should be used. {\bf Encoding Multivalued Symbols} --- Since the ZP-Coder is a strictly binary coder, every message must be reduced to a sequence of bits (#0#s or #1#s). It is often convenient to consider that a message is a sequence of symbols taking more than two values. For instance, a character string may be a sequence of bytes, and each byte can take 256 values. Each byte of course is composed of eight bits that we can encode in sequence. The real issue however consists of deciding how we will use context variables in order to let the ZP-Coder learn the probability distribution of the byte values. The most significant bit #b0# decides whether the byte is in range 0..127 or in range 128..255. We let the ZP-Coder learn how to predict this bit by allocating one context variable for it. The second most significant byte #b1# has two distinct meanings depending of bit #b0#. If bit #b0# is #0#, bit #b1# decides whether the byte is in range 0..63 or 64..127. If bit #b0# is #1#, bit #b1# decides whether the byte is in range 128..191 or 192..255. The prediction for bit #b1# must therefore depend on the value of #b0#. This is why we will allocate two context variables for this bit. If bit #b0# is #0#, we will use the first variable; if bit #b0# is #1#, we will use the second variable. The next bit #b2# has four meanings and therefore we will use four context variables, etc. This analysis leads to a total of #1+2+4+...+128# = #255# context variables for encoding one byte. This encoding procedure can be understood as a binary decision tree with a dedicated context variable for predicting each decision. \begin{verbatim} [>=128]----n---[>=64?]----n----[>31?] ... \ `---y----[>95?] ... \ `--y---[>=192?]----n---[>=160?] ... `---y---[>=224?] ... \end{verbatim} The following decoding function illustrates a very compact way to implement such a decision tree. Argument #ctx# points to an array of 255 #BitContext# variables. Macro #REPEAT8# is a shorthand notation for eight repetitions of its argument. \begin{verbatim} int decode_8_bits(ZPCodec &zp, BitContext *ctx ) { int n = 1; REPEAT8( { n = (n<<1) | (zp.decoder(ctx[n-1])); } ); return n & 0xff; } \end{verbatim} The binary representation of variable #n# is always composed of a #1# followed by whichever bits have been decoded so far. This extra bit #1# in fact is a nice trick to flatten out the tree structure and directly address the array of context variables. Bit #b0# is decoded using the first context variable since #n# is initially #1#. Bit #b1# is decoded using one of the next two variables in the array, since #n# is either #2# (#10# in binary) or #3# (#11# in binary). Bit #b2# will be decoded using one of the next four variables, since #n# ranges from #4# (#100# in binary) to #7# (#111# in binary). The final result is given by removing the extra #1# in variable #n#. The corresponding encoding function is almost as compact. Argument #ctx# again is an array of 255 #BitContext# variables. Each bit of byte #x# is encoded and shifted into variable #n# as in the decoding function. Variable #x# in fact contains the bits to be encoded. Variable #n# contains a #1# followed by the already encoded bits. \begin{verbatim} void encode_8_bits(ZPCodec &zp, int x, BitContext *ctx ) { int n = 1; REPEAT8( { int b=((x&0x80)?1:0); x=(x<<1); zp.encoder(b,ctx[n-1]); n=(n<<1)|(b); } ); } \end{verbatim} The ZP-Coder automatically adjusts the content of the context variables while coding (recall the context variable argument is passed to functions #encoder# and #decoder# by reference). The whole array of 255 context variables can be understood as a "byte context variable". The estimated probability of each byte value is indeed the product of the estimated probabilities of the eight binary decisions that lead to that value in the decision tree. All these probabilities are adapted by the underlying adaptation algorithm of the ZP-Coder. {\bf Application} --- We consider now a simple applications consisting of encoding the horizontal and vertical coordinates of a cloud of points. Each coordinate requires one byte. The following function illustrates a possible implementation: \begin{verbatim} void encode_points(const char *filename, int n, int *x, int *y) { StdioByteStream bs(filename, "wb"); bs.write32(n); // Write number of points. ZPCodec zp(bs, 1); // Construct encoder and context vars. BitContext ctxX[255], ctxY[255]; memset(ctxX, 0, sizeof(ctxX)); memset(ctxY, 0, sizeof(ctxY)); for (int i=0; i<n; i++) { // Encode coordinates. encode_8_bits(zp, x[i], ctxX); encode_8_bits(zp, y[i], ctxY); } } \end{verbatim} The decoding function is very similar to the encoding function: \begin{verbatim} int decode_points(const char *filename, int *x, int *y) { StdioByteStream bs(filename,"rb"); int n = bs.read32(); // Read number of points. ZPCodec zp(bs, 0); // Construct decoder and context vars. BitContext ctxX[255], ctxY[255]; memset(ctxX, 0, sizeof(ctxX)); memset(ctxY, 0, sizeof(ctxY)); for (int i=0; i<n; i++) { // Decode coordinates. x[i] = decode_8_bits(zp, ctxX); y[i] = decode_8_bits(zp, ctxY); } return n; // Return number of points. } \end{verbatim} The ZP-Coder automatically estimates the probability distributions of both the horizontal and vertical coordinates. These estimates are used to efficiently encode the point coordinates. This particular implementation is a good option if we assume that the order of the points is significant and that successive points are independent. It would be much smarter otherwise to sort the points and encode relative displacements between successive points. {\bf Huffman Coding Tricks} --- Programmers with experience in Huffman codes can see the similarity in the ZP-Coder. Huffman codes also organize the symbol values as a decision tree. The tree is balanced in such a way that each decision is as unpredictable as possible (i.e. both branches must be equally probable). This is very close to the ZP-Coder technique described above. Since we allocate one context variable for each decision, our tree need not be balanced: the context variable will track the decision statistics and the ZP-Coder will compensate optimally. There are good reasons however to avoid unbalanced trees with the ZP-Coder. Frequent symbol values may be located quite deep in a poorly balanced tree. This increases the average number of message bits (the number of decisions) required to code a symbol. The ZP-Coder will be called more often, making the coding program slower. Furthermore, each message bit is encoded using an estimated distribution. All these useless message bits mean that the ZP-Coder has more distributions to adapt. This extra adaptation work will probably increase the file size. Huffman codes are very fast when the tree structure is fixed beforehand. Such {\em static Huffman codes} are unfortunately not very efficient because the tree never matches the actual data distribution. This is why such programs almost always define a data dependent tree structure. This structure must then be encoded in the file since the decoder must know it before decoding the symbols. Static Huffman codes however become very efficient when decisions are encoded with the ZP-Coder. The tree structure represents a priori knowledge about the distribution of the symbol values. Small data discrepancies will be addressed transparently by the ZP-Coder. {\bf Encoding Numbers} --- This technique is illustrated with the following number encoding example. The multivalued technique described above is not practical with large numbers because the decision tree has too many nodes and requires too many context variables. This problem can be solved by using a priori knowledge about the probability distribution of our numbers. Assume for instance that the distribution is symmetrical and that small numbers are much more probable than large numbers. We will first group our numbers into several sets. Each number is coded by first coding which set contains the number and then coding a position within the set. Each set contains #2^n# numbers that we consider roughly equiprobable. Since the most probable values occur much more often, we want to model their probability more precisely. Therefore we use small sets for the most probable values and large sets for the least probable values, as demonstrated below. \begin{verbatim} A---------------- {0} (size=1) `------B---C---- {1} or {-1} (size=1) \ `--- {2,3} or {-2,-3} (size=2) D------ {4...131} or {-4...-131} (size=128) `----- {132...32899} or {-132...-32899} (size=32768) \end{verbatim} We then organize a decision tree for coding the set identifier. This decision tree is balanced using whatever a priori knowledge we have about the probability distribution of the number values, just like a static Huffman tree. Each decision (except the sign decision) is then coded using a dedicated context variable. \begin{verbatim} if (! zp.decoder(ctx_A)) { // decision A return 0; } else { if (! zp.decoder(ctx_B)) { // + decision B if (! zp.decoder(ctx_C)) { // ++ decision C if (! zp.decoder()) // +++ sign decision return +1; else return -1; } else { if (! zp.decoder()) // +++ sign decision return + 2 + zp.decoder(); else return - 2 - zp.decoder(); } } else { if (! zp.decoder(ctx_D)) { // ++ decision D if (! zp.decoder()) // +++ sign decision return + 4 + decode_7_bits(zp); else return - 4 - decode_7_bits(zp); } else { if (! zp.decoder()) // +++ sign decision return + 132 + decode_15_bits(zp); else return - 132 - decode_15_bits(zp); } } } \end{verbatim} Note that the call #zp.decoder()# for coding the sign decision does not use a context variable. This is a "pass-thru" variant of \Ref{decoder} which bypasses the ZP-Coder and just reads a bit from the code sequence. There is a corresponding "pass-thru" version of \Ref{encoder} for encoding such bits. Similarly, functions #decode_7_bits# and #decode_15_bits# do not take an array of context variables because, unlike function #decode_8_bits# listed above, they are based on the pass-thru decoder instead of the regular decoder. The ZP-Coder will not learn the probabilities of the numbers within a set since no context variables have been allocated for that purpose. This could be improved by allocating additional context variables for encoding the position within the smaller sets and using the regular decoding functions instead of the pass-thru variants. Only experimentation can tell what works best for your particular encoding problem. {\bf Understanding Adaptation} --- We have so far explained that the ZP-Coder adaptation algorithm is able to quickly estimate of the probability distribution of the message bits coded using a particular context variable. It is also able to track slow variations when the actual probabilities change while coding. Let us consider the ``cloud of points'' application presented above. Suppose that we first code points located towards the left side and then slowly move towards points located on the right side. The ZP-Coder will first estimate that the X coordinates are rather on the left side. This estimation will be progressively revised after seeing more points on the right side. Such an ordering of the points obviously violates the point independence assumption on which our code is based. Despite our inexact assumptions, the tracking mechanism allows for better prediction of the X coordinates and therefore better compression. However, this is not a perfect solution. The ZP-Coder tracks the changes because every point seems to be a little bit more on the right side than suggested by the previous points. The ZP-Coder coding algorithm is always slightly misadjusted and we always lose a little on possible compression ratio. This is not much of a problem when the probabilities drift slowly. On the other hand, this can be very significant if the probabilities change drastically. Adaptation is always associated with a small loss of efficiency. The ZP-Coder updates the probability model whenever it suspects, {\em after coding}, that the current settings were not optimal. The model will be better next time, but a slight loss in compression has occurred. The design of ZP-Coder of course minimizes this effect as much as possible. Yet you will pay a price if you ask too much to the adaptation algorithm. If you have millions of context variables, it will be difficult to train them all. If the probability distributions change drastically while coding, it will be difficult to track the changes fast enough. Adaptation on the other hand is a great simplification. A good data compression program must (a) represent the data in order to make its predictability apparent, and (b) perform the predictions and generate the code bits. The ZP-Coder is an efficient and effortless solution for implementing task (b). {\bf Practical Debugging Tricks} --- Sometimes you write an encoding program and a decoding program. Unfortunately there is a bug: the decoding program decodes half the file and then just outputs garbage. There is a simple way to locate the problem. In the encoding program, after each call to #encoder#, print the encoded bit and the value of the context variable. In the decoding program, after each call to #decoder#, print the decoded bit and the value of the context variable. Both program should print exactly the same thing. When you find the difference, you find the bug. @memo Suggestions for efficiently using the ZP-Coder. */ //@} // ------------ THE END #ifdef HAVE_NAMESPACES } # ifndef NOT_USING_DJVU_NAMESPACE using namespace DJVU; # endif #endif #endif

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